miércoles, 18 de mayo de 2011

Religius Implications for Internal Business

As we already know, Religion is one of determinant of  culture, is for that reason that in organizational culture has a big impact too. We need to have very clear which are the religions in all the world and specifically where religions are practiced.

Religion has a lot of rules, and several cultures are really based on their religion. As we already know there are several types of religion; Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Budism, confusianism. All the religions are important no matter how old or how new are.

What is the dominant religion in Colombia? What are the religious implications for doing business here? Give examples.
Colombia have a lot of people with different religion, but isa religion that is really dominant in the country, and that in Christianism. Doing business is not a problem, because this religion doesn't have some specific rules that can affect the relations in business, for example the islam religion is one of the most difficult ones at the time of doing business

•Fang, T (1999) Chinese Business Negotiating Style, London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
•Hill, C. (2007) International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace. 7ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
•Weber, M. (1958) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, New York: Scribner's Press.

Organizational Diversity

First of all, in this case we need to clarify the difference between a group and a team; Group, is two or more people with common interests, objectives, and continuing interaction, and a Team, A group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common
mission, performance goals, and approach for which they
hold themselves mutually accountable. If we see, one is based on the other one, we can't have a team if we don't have a group already.

There are several types of a member of a group, and everyone has an specific function on the group:

  • Contributor: is one that supplies information
  • Collaborator: is that person that focuses team on mission
  • Communicator: listens, facilitates and promotes collective effort
  • Challenger: devil’s advocate, questions mission, purpose, ethics
It is very important for the group health, that all the members were diversity. If it is not, theres no way that it will be differents points of view. But, at the same time, it could be a problem on solving problems, because its probably that it will be lower than the others. 


Since diversity is a source of competitive advantage,
what could be the recruitment strategies to effectively
target to diverse groups? What would be the
consequences of ignoring diversity?
Diversity, is a great advantage that an organization has, and if we are the competition, it will be a huge monster one step ahead of the organization. An strategy could be an effective solving problems team, when the time of solving will be lower and we are being more competitive than the other companies. 
Ignoring diversity, is one of the most huge mistakes that an organization should never do. Because, when a company has this advantage, has a saveral points of view, and the probabilities that their strategies fail are less than the other companies.


• Cox Jr., T. (2001) Creating the multicultural organization. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
• Ely, R. and Thomas, D. (2001) “Cultural Diversity at Work: The
Effects of Diversity Perspectives on Work Group Processes and
Outcomes,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 2,
2001, pp. 229–273.
• Jamieson, D. and O’Mara, J. (1991) Managing workforce
2000: Gaining the diversity advantage.
• Nelson, D and Quick, J.C. (2009) Organizational culture. In
Organizational Behavior: Science, the real world and you.
• Slater, Stanley, F., Weigand, Robert A., Zweilein, Thomas J.
(2008) ¨The business case for commitment to diversity¨.
Business Horizons 51: 201-209. 

Organizational Communication and Virtual Teams

Communication is one of the bases that a human being has, without these tool, the world would not be what it is in this moment, suddenly the humans were still living in caves. 

Communication is a tool that all the people use dialy, and we really need to use it on every activity that a person do, and implementing on the organization in a good way could be the best tool that the organization has. 

There are a communicator and receiver; inside of the organization there are several communicators and receivers, whose are exchanging messages all the time. In the case of reflexive listener, who is a person that has the skill of listening carefully to another person and repeating back to the speaker the heard message to correct any inaccuracies or misunderstandings. 

There exist two ways of communication; One way communication which is when a communicator gives the messages but the message never comeback with an answer, and Two-way communication, which is when the communicatior gives the message and the receiver gives back a feedback. 

When we talk about communcation, not only talk about sounds, the non verbal communication is one of the most important parts even on the organization. This is because, the way that a person dress and act says more than a learned speech. 

Nowadays, technology is part of communication area, things like internet and social networks are improving new ways to communicate and easily. 


• Ebrahim, N., Ahmed, S., & Taha, Z. (2009) Virtual Teams: a Literature Review.
Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 3(3), 2653-2669. Retrieved from
• Kuruppuarachchi, P. R. (2009). Virtual team concepts in projects: A case study
Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Retrieved from
• Nelson, D and Quick, J.C. (2009) Organizational culture. In Organisational
Behavour: Science, the real world and you.
• Powell, A ., G. Piccoli and B. Ives (2004) Virtual teams : a review of current literature
and directions for future research. The Data base for Advances in Information
Systems , 35: 6-36.
• Rosen, B., S. Furst and R. Blackburn (2007) Overcoming Barriers t o Knowledge
Sharing in Virtual Teams. Organizacional Dynamics , 36: 259-273.
• Shachaf, P. and N. Hara (2005) Team Effectiveness in Virtual Environments : An
Ecological Approach. INFERRIS, P.A.G., S., (Ed.) Teaching and Learning with Virtual
Teams. Idea Group Publishing.

Migrant Workers / Expatriate assignments

Migrant labor, involves the movement of people from one country (or region) to another primarily for employment related reasons (IPPR 2004).
At the same way, exist the expatriate which means to exile (oneself) from one's native country or cause (another) to go into exile. But there are other reasons why people wants to go away from their origin country. Some of these are based on the motivation maslow theory, people looking for jobs better than that they had; Other people just are looking other cultures, they only want to see the world. This last behavior is caused because of the globalization, this phonomenom has caused that a lot of people in the world be interested in learning and knowing more from other countries. 


Explain how easy is it for Colombian companies
to employ expatriates locally?
Colombian companies, are already based on their organizational culture, but this one is based too on their Colombian culture; a culture that is full of nice people who really has the intention to make it feel good another person. Colombian companies, really enjoy give employment to that people that are not from Colombia, they really think that is a good experience having another person from other country. 


• Buckley C. and Wills K. (2011) China's Wen puts social stability at heart of economy.
Retrieved from March 20, 2011, from Reuters:
• Expatriate. (n.d.). Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved March 11, 2011, from
Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/expatriate
• Florida, R. (2002) The rise of the creative class. The Washington Monthly, 34(5), 15.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213679959?accountid=45662
• Institute for Public Policy Research (2004) Labour migration to the UK: an ippr
• Kram, K.E. (1985) Mentoring At Work, Scott, Foresman: Glenview.
• Mezias, J.M and Scandura, T.A. (2005) A Needs-Driven Approach to Expatriate
Adjustment and Career Development: A Multiple Mentoring Perspective, Journal of
International Business Studies, Vol. 36, No. 5 (Sep.), pp. 519-538
• Scandura, T.A. and Von Glinow, M.A. (1997) 'Development of the international
manager: the role of mentoring', Business and the ContemporaryWorld9 : 95-115.

martes, 17 de mayo de 2011

Merging Organizational Culture

Mergers and Acquisitions, are marketing strategies that are very useful when a company is going to venture in other countries. In the same way, companies that want to improve their goals can use this estrategy in the same country between organizations that works on the same sector, creating a new social identity on the market. 

There are two options on these mergers, we can lose value or destroy value, because most of the times, one of the companies is more powerful and the other one can take advantage of that. On another hand, not all the companies with the same functions can joint together, this is why the companies really need to analize if this is a good strategy and if is really worth it. 

In this case, it's very important to watch out how much are the differences on the organizational culture between the organizations and how are they going to joint together creating a new one. 


• Alzira S., Wayne H., and Gerald V. (2003) “Challenges and opportunities in mergres and
acquisitions: three international case studies – Deutsche Bank-Bankers Trust; British Petroleum-
Amoco; Ford-Volvo”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 27 Iss:6, p. 313-321.
• Angwin, D. (2001) “Mergers and acquisitions across European borders: national perspectives on
pre-acquisition due diligence and the use of professional advisers”, Journal of World business, Vol.
36 No.1, p. 2-57.
• Datta, D.K. and Grant, J.H. (1990), “Relationships between type of acquisition, the autonomy given
to the acquired firm, and acquisition process: an empirical analysis”, Journal of Management, Vol.
16, p. 29-44.
• Elsaa, P.M. and Veiga, J.F. (1994), “Acculturation in acquired organizations: a force-field
perspective”, Human Relations, Vol. 47 No. 4.
• Gitelson, G., Bing, J., Laroche, L (2001) Culture Shock, CMA Management.
• Haspeslagh, P.C. and Jemison, D.B. (1991) Managing Acquisitions, The Free Press, New York.
• Nahavandi, A. and Malekzadeh, A.R. (1998) “Acculturation in mergers and acquisitions”, Academy of
Management Review, Vol.13, p.79-90.
• Nelson, D and Quick, J.C. (2009) Organizational culture. In Organisational Behavour: Science, the
real world and you.

Managing Change and Conflict

Change is one of the most dangerous risk that an organization has, sometimes could be better and sometimes could be worst, is depending of the point of view that a leader has, if the result is bad, must of the time a good leader see this as an opportunity to keep going and improve their goals. 

There are two (2) types of change; a change planned and change unplanned.  A change planned as the name says, is a change resulting from decision already made. And the change unplanned, is that change imposed without the concerns from anyone else. But also, there are three types of change:

  • Incremental Change: Small changes.
  • Strategic Change: Big changes.
  • Transformational Change: Radical changes. 
Not all leaders think that change is a good option, several good leaders prefers continue with business as usual instead of take the risk. 

Severeal times, change creates new conflicts that the leader never had and the consequences could be positive or negative; We can lose time and money, but at the same time we can learn something new and take an advantage of this. Leaders need to transfer de message, that something bad always have a lot of things better. 

Globalization, is one of the cases about change, this phenomenon put down all the boundaries in the world, and must of the companies need to understand that a new era had arrived. 


Is it possible to change corporate culture? If so, how?
Corporate culture is one of the keys that a company need to keep as a symbol. According to that, we can say that a corporate culture can be compared with country cultures, because these are already based on some rules and is really unrespectfull if someone who belongs to it doesn't follow it.  In corporate culture, happens the same thing, we need that this culture will be strong and always show that to the employees.  


 Deal T. and Kennedy, A. (1982). A Corporate Cultures. Adison-Wesley.
 Duck, J.D. (1993). Managing change: The Art of Balancing. Harvard Business Review.
 Hopper, P. (2006) Living with Globalization. Oxford: Berg.
 Mangaliso, M (2003) Building competitive advantage from Ubuntu. In Thomas, David
Clinton, ed. Readings and cases in International Management: A cross-cultural
 Nadler, D. and Nadler, M (1998) Champions of Change: How CEOs and Their
Companies are Mastering the Skills of Radical Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 Nelson, D and Quick, J.C. (2009) Managing Change. In Organisational Behavour:
Science, the real world and you.
 Nicholson, N (1995) (ed.), Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Organizational
Behavior. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
 Singh, K (2009) Organizational Behavior: Text and Cases. Pearson Education India, p.
 Weick (1985) The significance of corporate culture. In PJ Frost et al (Eds.)
Organisational Culture. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
 Zeira, Y., and Avedisian, J. (1989) Organizational planned change: Assessing the
chances for success. Organizational Dynamics, Spring

Organizational Learning

First of all we need to understand the definition of two (2) words, which are kwnoledge and learning. According to the scientist:
  • Knowledge: Is the capacity for effective action” (Peter Senge, 1998).
  • Learning: Is a process of acquiring knowledge or a skill.
There are several theories about this subject, one of these theories is the Social Learning Theory, which explains human behavior interms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive,behavioral, and environmental influences(Learning theories knowledgebase, 2011). 

According to the above, we can define what is a learning organization. Several scientist postulated definitions about this organizations, an example of this is Senge, who said in 1994 that "Learning organizations are places where people continually expand their capacities to create the results they truly desire”.Nowadays, this type of organizations are very important, because there are several factors as globalization, internet, technology that it wasn't there before, and this organizations are being competitive and well prepared for the future. 

The organizations need to be learning daily, because the world is advancing at the same time even faster, and they need to be updated everyday. 



What would be the relationship between cross 
cultural environments and organizational learning 

The relationship between cross cultural environments and organizational learning strategies, is that one of the strategies of the organizational learning is to be informed and update about the cross cultural environments. The organizations need to know how are this environments and how are they acting on the market, getting an idea to organizations to respond to the message that they environment is giving to them.


• Cooper, Cary L. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management. Blackwell Publishing, .
Blackwell Reference Online. Retrieved from13 January 2011:
• Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, January). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at
Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved from January 12th, 2011:
• Makridakis, S (1991) What can we learn from organisational failures ?, Long Range
Planning, 24(4), 115-126.
• Nelson, D.L. & Quick, J.C. (2010) Organizational Behavior: Science, The Real World and
You. South-Western College Publication, 7th. Ed.
• Nystrom, PC and WH Starbuck, (1984, Spring). To avoid organisational crisis, unlearn,
Organisational Dynamic@, 53-64.
• Senge, P. (1998) Sharing Knowledge. At Society For Organizational Learning. Retrieved
from January 12th , 2011: http://www.solonline.org/res/kr/shareknow.html
• Shukla, M (1994) CORPORATE FAILURES: Why Organisations Fail To Learn.
Productivity, 34(4), 629-639.
• Teece, D. (1998) Capturing value from knowledge assets: The new economy, Markets for
know-how, and intangible assets. California Management Review. Vol 40 No 3. Spring
1998. Retrieved from January 2011:

Leadership and Management

According to the theories, Management is responsible for maintaining order and leadership is responsible for producing change or movement;both are very releated bot at the same time are very different each other. 
Several of the differences that the management process between leadership process has, is that the first one reduces uncertainty and provides stability, and the second one is all the oposite because creates uncertainty and change. As I said before these two elements are complementary system of action.

There are four types od behavioral theories, these are:
  • Authoritarian: which is when the manager retains as much power and decision making authority as possible
  • Consultative: which is when the leader will talk to everyone involved in or affected by a task to get their views and ideas. 
  • Democratic: is a participative style, when the leaders keep employees informed about things that affect their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. 
  • Laissez-faire: which is when the leaders gives employees as much freedom as possible. 

Nowadays, there are other theories about leadership types, according to the new leaders and the way that they manage their companies and countries (Barack Obama).
  • Transformational Leaders
  • Charismatic Leaders
  • Authentic Leaders  

Charismatic Leader


Discuss transformational, charismatic, and authentic leadership. Would you expect these styles of leadership to exist in all cultures? Differ across cultures? Explain.   

These new theories about leadership, are very good and their really worked on the organizations, but I really think that those theories are not made for all cultures, because, not all of the countries are opened to the world and several cultures are based on some rules that these theories would be disrespecting the culture. 


• Bennis, W. G. (1989). On becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
• Brilhart, J. K., and Galanes, G. J. (1989). Effective Group Decisions.
• Dubuque, IA: William C Brown Publishers. p. 201-203.
• Kotter, J. P. (1990). What leaders really do. Harvard Business Review, May-
June, p. 103-11.
• Nelson, D.L. & Quick, J.C. (2010) Organizational Behavior: Science, The Real
World and You. South-Western College Publication, 7th. Ed.
• Northouse, P. G. (2001). Leadership: theory and practice. Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage.

miércoles, 9 de marzo de 2011

Ethical Decision Making in Organizations

Decisions making, is one of the most important dilemmas of the CEO’s, he is the person who has to decide what strategy is going to implement the company, and having two options the right side or the wrong side. There are two types of decisions, the programmed decisions (which need to resolve with no hurries and for certain situations) and the Nonprogrammed decisions (which need to resolve more creatively and faster).

In the decision subject, there is a topic that is the most important to highlight, is the risk that the CEO has to take in the moment that is implemented the decision previously selected. But not all of the CEO’s likes to take risk. There are two types of CEO’s; the risk takers and the risk aversions.

  • Risk Takers: They are more creative, accept greater potential for loss and have tolerated greater uncertainty

  • Risk Aversions: They are more classic at the time to take decisions; they don’t like to feel uncertainity. 

Group decisions must be better, but sometimes it would be complicated to handle all the opinions, for this reason the CEO has to be clear in which situation has to consider the opinion of the employees and which situation has to take decisions by himself, always acting with ethical behavior. 


How can organizations effectively manage both risk taking and escalation of commitment in the decision-making behavior of employees?

First of all the CEO, needs to be sure that the employee is capable to take these important decisions and has to know if the employee feels job satisfaction, these could assurance that the employee has a really commitment with the organization. The results would be positives if the CEO has a good motivation method that makes feel to the employees happy and comfortable.  


  • Mintzberg, H. & Westley, F. (2001, Spring). Decision making: It’s not what you think. MIT Sloan Management Review, 42(3), 89 –93.
  • Nelson, D.L. & Quick, J.C. (2010) OrganizationalBehavior: Science, TheReal Worldand You. South-Western CollegePublication, 7th. Ed.
  • Wong, K. F. E., & Kwong, J. Y. Y. (2007). The role of anticipated regret in escalation of commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 545–554.

martes, 8 de marzo de 2011

The Corporation

The documentary shows that the corporation is an organization that operates on the entire world having as it first objective the achievements of the goals. Nowadays, corporations are very important in the world, this is because they are acquire some things than another organizations never couldn’t had. For example, the corporations can be legally responsible or can buy properties and assets, but in the same way they have the freedom to act with immorally attitudes in some cases, they don't matter the consequences that they have to pay for do this horribles things.


As a legal organizational model, how does the rise of corporations influence the aspects of culture in pursuing profit?

The influence is negative, this is because the news and olds organizations are aware about the organizational culture and how this has to be based on a several values and principals that has to be accomplish. On the other hand the only objective of the corporation is to have profits, no matter how to get them. 



Organizational Motivation

According to business dictionary, we can define motivation as “Internal and external factors that stimulate desireand energyin people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in attaining a goal”.
There are several theories about this subject that explain the behavior that the CEO’s has to implement to have motivated employees, inspiring them to do the work.

Principal Theories:

1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: it is the most influential theory, which explains motivation based on a pyramid of needs.  


Maslow said “when an inferior rank need is satisfied, the next level need becomes dominant and the attention is dedicated to the accomplishment of this higher rank need”. This says, when a need is supplied, the next one becomes with the same importance than the last one had. However this theory has received several critics because not all the people have the same priorities.

2. Frederick Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory: He based his investigation on professional satisfactions and professional dissatisfactions, which he called; Motivation factors (psychological growth) and Hygiene factors (avoidance of pain). 

3. Theory X and Theory Y: The theory X, is about the employees that always are thinking on a negative way, are avoiding work and responsibilities. On the other hand, theory Y is about the employees that always are thinking beyond the responsibilities that already had.   

It is important motivate the employees in a positive way, this could give to the company some of certain that it will be successful in the future.


In multicultural organizational contexts what could be a good strategy to keep people motivated towards a common task?

First of all, it is important give to the employees a salary that could sustain their principal needs, and also give them all the benefits, this is not only important for the employee it is important for the company to be secure in case of accidents or another circumstances. But not only economical part is important; the way that they feel in the organization is the most important of all, because if they don’t feel comfortable and happy with their work, they don’t want to do the work with the same capability and love.  The CEO, plays an important role, he has to be very king with the employees, making sure that they feels comfortable working in his company.

  • Nelson, Debra L. and Quick, James Campbell. 2010. OrganisationalBehavior –Science, the Real World, and You. South-Western CengageLearning, Mason, USA. Chapter5.
  • Business Dictionary (2010). Definition of motivation. Retrieved on January the 5th2011 from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/motivation.html

Personality, Perception and Attribution: Attitudes and Values

Personality is one of the most important factors on the organizational culture and behavior, this is because personality is a group of characteristics that one person have that influence an individual’s behavior. According to the employee personality the CEO could see if the person is adequate to the job, depending on what is reflecting, his tastes, his thoughts, his actions in different moments, etc.

However, personality is not only about the actions or behavior, this definition also includes values, emotions, cognitions, attitudes, expectancies and fantasies. On the other hand, Organizational personality has several highlights points in Core self-evaluation:

·        Locus of control: This factor is about the internal and individual control versus external control in several situations.
·        Self-esteem: This factor is about the love of self-work. It is important because this factor gives him security of himself.
·        Generalized self-efficacy: This factor is about believed in yourself like a capable person, who has the capacity to be a successful business.  

It is important for the employee to have a good attitude from himself, always thinking that is a successful entrepreneur capable to be any business in the market.


What is your perception of a Japanese aid worker before and after the talk with Yasuko? On what do you base your perception?

Before I met Yasuko, I thought that the aid workers from Japan or from other countries used this opportunity to learn some languages depending of the country assigned. After Yasuko talk, I think that the aid workers from any part of the world are trained already, and they need the language before the travel to the country, also the commitment of these aid workers it is very relevant, and the mission of the workers needs to be achieved.     


  • Harrison, D.A., Newman, D.A., Roth, P.L. 2006. How important are job attitudes?
  • Nelson, D.L. & Quick, J.C. 2010. OrganizationalBehavior: Science, TheReal World andYou. South-Western CollegePublication, 7th. Ed.


Organizations Behavior and National and Organizational Culture

Organizations Behavior.

To understand the organizations behavior, first of all is important to explain the definition of organization; "Is a structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed-upon objectives". There are too many variables that affect the human behavior at work, complementing the study of this science, for example jobs, the design of work, communication, performance appraisal, organizational design, etc. From this, now we can define organizations behavior like "The study of individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations".

Kurt Lewins thought that the organizations behavior was very important to the organizations, for this reason he created an equation and a definition that explain that:
 “Behavior is a function of both the personand the environment (system)”.
B = f (P/E)

The study of organizations behavior is based on several sciences that we already know like medicine, management, anthropology, psychology, sociology, engineering, there have a huge influence on the behavior of the employees. All of these sciences are important to the developing of the organizational behavior because in a different way all are related to the subject in some aspect (minimum or maximum) that we are talking about. 


In organizational behavior there are several levels that evaluate it, to be easier to understand and to handle it. There are 3:
·        Group Processes: Is based on the communication
·        Individual Processes: Is based on the work individual attitudes.
·        Organizational Processes: Is based on the structure of the organization.

It is important to highlight that there are two perspectives to see the organizations behavior, the internal perspective, which considers factors inside the person to understand behavior, and the other one is the external perspective which focuses on factors outside the person to understand behavior.

This subject is very important to the managers and CEO’s to know how to handle their employees and how to be more competitive in the market. 


National and Organizational Culture.

The national culture is one of the most important influences that organizational culture has, this is because the people that works in the company normally acts following the national culture and acting in this way. From the last one we can define what it is an organizational culture: “A set of values or beliefs that is unique to any one organization”.

If the culture is well established could gives the company guides decision making, guides employee behavior, however could provides identity for the employees creating a commitment between them with the organization. For example, the organizational culture in Japan is based on the collectivism creating lifetime work, on the other hand, United States works based on the individualism.

The organizational culture needs to be diversify, this is because not all the time the employees has to be from the same country or from the same culture, given them the facility to have a comfortable adaptation in the company even if they are from another culture. But this is not the only reason; another one is when the company wants to internationalize the company. 

Videos about Organizational Culture:

Question for Organizational Culture:

  • Why is managing organizational behavior in changing times challenging?
    In Changing times, is very important to have a good managing of organizational behavior, because these are times that the company needs to take several decisions that are going to make the difference in the organization envionment. It is important that the CEO shows a good attitud towards the crisis, because he is the reflects of the company and he can gives to the employees a security environment. In changing times it is easier to the company work in teams, implementing methods like brainstormings having solutions in a quickly way.

Nelson, Debra L. and Quick, James Campbell. 2010. Organisational Behavior –Science, the Real World, and You. South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, USA. Chapter 1 and 2.

Cameron, K., & Quinn, R., (1999). Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Mead, Richard. 2004. International Management: Cross-Cultural Dimensions.London: Blackwell Publishing. Chapter 1.
Nelson, D.L. & Quick, J.C. 2010. Organizational Behavior: Science, The Real World and You. South-Western College Publication, 7th. Ed. Chapter 1.